Explanation: As ancient civilizations developed more sophisticated methods of farming, there was an increase in the number of cities as well as the populations of those cities. As food production increased through advances in agriculture, societies became more well organized and developed distinct cultural identities, making (D) the best answer. Choice (A) is backwards—as agriculture increased, hunter-gatherer lifestyles declined. Choice (B) is incorrect because the ancient Mesopotamians were polytheistic. Choice (C) is incorrect because women had very few economic (or other) opportunities during the time period in question.