Explanation: The Safavids were located in Persia, smack dab between the Mughal Empire (India) and the Ottoman Empire (Eastern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Levant). This idea matches (A). The Safavids were devout Muslims, so eliminate (B). Choice (C) is incorrect, as it describes a practice utilized by the Ottoman Empire. Choice (D) does not make sense, as Shi’a Muslims would never proclaim there to be a caliph who was not appointed by God from Muhammad’s direct family lineage. Selim, by contrast, was named caliph under the Sunni tradition.