Explanation: Stalin wanted to remain in power, and thus had an incentive to produce not just more goods, but positive political propaganda. Official governmental statistics (A) are often notoriously unreliable, designed to maintain or increase support for a government. German assistance is nowhere accounted for in the data at hand (B). Also, it was not until 1939 that Germany and Russia, who had supported opposing sides of those fighting the Spanish Civil War, signed a nonaggression pact. Kulaks (wealthy Russian peasants) had been mostly exterminated by the 1920s (D).
Explanation: Between 1933 and 1937, according to the chart, production of all the cited commodities increased. Consumer goods (A) are not referred to in the chart. While grain, flax, sugar beets, and oil seed experienced reduced outputs in 1938, cotton production increased (B). The Soviets had more, not less, demand for cotton than for flax fiber (C).
Explanation: After World War I, Italy, having joined the Allied Powers after the start of the war, received neither reparations nor territory; therefore, the Italians resented what they perceived to be an unfair division of the spoils of war. The Ottoman Empire was dissolved and never reformed (A); Australia (C) is completely irrelevant to the map; and Kuwait (D) never became part of Iraq.
Explanation: The Balfour Declaration indicated that Britain could eventually support a Jewish state, and other countries made no public statement. The Zimmerman Telegram (B), the Berlin Conference (C), and the Non-Aligned Movement (D) do not refer to the Middle East and are therefore incorrect.
Explanation: Self-determination refers to the right to rule oneself. Colonialism (A) involves a foreign power being either directly or indirectly in control of another nation. Containment (C) refers to the policy of stopping the spread of communism, which was not an issue in the Middle East. Mercantilism (D) was an economic system associated with colonialism and imperialism, whereas the map refers to political administration.
Explanation: The map reflects the distribution of the defeated Central Powers’ territories by the League of Nations after World War I. The encomienda system is Latin American (A) and thus is not on the map. The Berlin Conference (C) dealt with all of Africa and included more European nations than simply Britain and France. The cold war (D) did not play out in the Middle East and would have referred to the Soviets and the United States.