Explanation: In the 1970s, top Japanese leaders traveled to Europe and the United States to study western-style economic and political practices. Japan briefly implemented a civil service system like the Chinese during the Heian period, but it never fully developed (A). Japan had been inward-looking prior to this time. Although some Japanese argued for expansion, in the hopes that they would gain power, this did not occur until the later 1890s, and then did not occur in the Pacific (B). The turning inward happened prior to these events, during the Tokugawa Shogunate, and thus was not a response to them (D).