Medical-Surgical Nursing MCQs

A nurse is giving an educational class to members of the local disaster team. What should the nurse instruct members of the disaster team to do in a chemical bioterrorist attack?

Answer Explanation: Most chemicals are heavier than air, except for hydrogen cyanide. Therefore, in the presence of most chemicals, people should stand up to avoid heavy exposure because the chemical will sink toward the floor or ground. For this reason, covering their eyes, putting on a PPE mask, or crawling to an exit will not decrease exposure.

A group of military nurses are reviewing the care of victims of biochemical terrorist attacks. The nurses should identify what agents as having the shortest latency?

Answer Explanation: Latency is the time from absorption to the appearance of signs and symptoms. Sulfur mustards and pulmonary agents have the longest latency, whereas vesicants, nerve agents, and cyanide produce signs and symptoms within seconds.

A nurse has had contact with a patient who developed smallpox and became febrile after a terrorist attack. This nurse will require what treatment?

Answer Explanation: All people who have had household or face-to-face contact with a patient with small pox after the fever begins should be vaccinated within 4 days to prevent infection and death. Watchful waiting would be inappropriate and CSFs are not used for treatment. Vaccination, rather than antibiotics, is the treatment of choice.

The emergency response team is dealing with a radiation leak at the hospital. What action should be performed to prevent the spread of the contaminants?

Answer Explanation: All air ducts and vents must be sealed to prevent spread. Waste is controlled through double-bagging and the use of plastic-lined containers outside of the facility rather than incineration. Bleach would be ineffective against radiation and the ventilation system may or may not be deactivated.