Explanation: The encomienda system entitled Spanish conquerors to control Indian labor, and in return, the Spaniards “civilized and Christianized” natives. Medieval manorialism allowed landholders to give access to, though not ownership of, land to the peasants who worked it. While the Catholic Church approved of and supported both the encomienda and manorial systems, it did not directly involve itself in either (A). The merchant class was separate from the landholding class (C). Although the Spanish central (royal) government supported the encomienda system, there was no effective central government to support manorialism (D).